Friday, February 27, 2009

What about my Pattaya Susnset Photo?


Width : 2540 pixels
Height : 1905 pixels
Horizontal Res : 72 dpi
Vertical Res : 72 dpi
Equipment : SONY
Camera Model : DSC-H7
Color Representation : sRGB
Focal Length : 16 mm
Exposure time : 1/80 sec
Flash Mode : Unknown
ISO Speed : ISO-80
Exposure PROGRAM : Normal
More details..

Wednesday, February 25, 2009

Terms beginning with "A" in Photography

(1) Something that prevents light from being brought into sharp focus, disenabling the formation of a clear image.
(2) Lens flaw - the inability of a lens to reproduce an accurate, focused, sharp image. Aberration in simple lenses is sub-categorized into seven types:
  • Astigmatism - lines in some directions are focused less sharply than lines in other directions,
  • Chromatic aberration or Axial chromatic aberration - different wavelengths of light coming into focus in front of and behind the film plane, resulting in points of light exhibiting a rainbow-like halo and reduction in sharpness,
  • Coma - the image of a point source of light cannot be brought into focus, but has instead a comet shape,
  • Curvilinear distortion - distortion consisting of curved lines,
  • Field curvature - the image is incorrectly curved,
  • Lateral chromatic aberration also known as Transverse chromatic aberration - variation in the magnification at the sides of a lens (this aberration type used to be termed “lateral color”),
  • Spherical aberration : - variation in focal length of a lens from center to edge due to its spherical shape - generally all parts of the image, including its center.
The effects of lens aberration usually increase with increases in aperture or in angle of field.

ABSORPTION - Occurs when light is partially or completely absorbed by a surface, converting its energy to heat.

ABSTRACT - In the photographic sense, an image that is conceived apart from concrete reality, generally emphasizing lines, colors and geometrical forms, and their relationship to one another.

ACCESSORY SHOE - A fitting generally located on top of a camera to which accessories (such as a flash unit) are attached.

ACHROMATIC - Free from chromatic aberration. An achromatic lens is able to transmit light without separating it into colors.

ACUTANCE - A measure of the sharpness with which the film can produce the edge of an object.

ADAPTER RING - Also called a “Stepping ring” - enables a filter of one size to be attached to a lens of another size.

ADDITIVE COLOR - Mixing colored lights to result in another light color.

ADVANCED PHOTO SYSTEM (APS) - A camera system brought forth in 1996 as a new foolproof photography system for weekend snapshooters and people who had not yet ventured into photography. It introduced a new film size (requiring new camera designs to use it) and a new means of photofinishing.

AE LOCK - Auto Exposure Lock or "AE-L" - permits you to take an exposure meter reading from part of a scene and to keep the reading to apply it to the entire composition. The photographer first aims the camera at a specific area, takes a meter reading, locks in that reading using the camera's AE Lock, then recomposes the image and takes the picture.

AERIAL - Above ground; in the air. Also casually refers to a picture taken from the air, as in an “aerial” or an “aerial photograph.”

AERIAL PERSPECTIVE - The perception of depth or distance caused by atmospheric haze and its effect on tonal change in an image.

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY - Photography conducted above ground, commonly understood to be picture-taking from an aircraft.

AF - Abbreviation for “Autofocus”

AF LOCK - Autofocus Lock - Causes the camera to stop automatically focusing. AF lock is typically used when the subject is outside of the viewfinder’s autofocus sensor(s). The photographer first aims the camera so that subject comes automatically into focus, “locks” in that focus setting using AF lock so that autofocus is temporarily disabled, then recomposes the image and takes the picture.

AGITATION - Gentle movement of liquid photo-processing chemicals (developer, stop-bath, fixer) during processing of film or paper in order to achieve uniform results.

AIR - A relatively large area of white space in a layout.

AMBIENT LIGHT - Existing light surrounding a subject; the light that is illuminating a scene without any additional light supplied by the photographer. “Available light” and “existing light” are two other terms that mean the same thing.

ANAMORPHIC LENS - a lens that compresses a wide-angle of view into a standard frame.

ANGLE OF INCIDENCE - Light striking a surface is called “incident light.” It becomes “reflected light” when it reflects from the surface. The “angle of incidence” is the angle at which the incident light strikes the surface, and is measured from a line that is perpendicular to the surface (called the “normal”).

ANGLE OF VIEW - Also known as the “Field of view,” “FOV” and the “Angle of the field of view”, it is the extent of the view taken in by a lens. The focal length of a lens, in conjunction with film size, determines the angle of view. Wide-angle lenses have a wider angle of view than do telephoto lenses. A “standard” lens has an angle of view equal to the diagonal of the film, which is generally around 52 or 53.

ANTI-ALIASING - Smoothing the edges of objects in a digital image to reduce the appearance of "stair steps".

ANTI-SHAKE - Technology that combats a lens's movement caused by camera shake to reduce blur in an image.

APERTURE - A circle-shaped opening in a lens (a hole, really) through which light passes to strike the film. The aperture is usually created by an iris diaphragm that is adjustable, enabling the aperture to be made wider or narrower, thereby letting in more or less light. The size of the aperture is expressed as an f-number, like f/8 or f/11.

APERTURE PREVIEW - Controlled by a button or switch on some cameras, this feature permits you to look at the scene in the viewfinder with the aperture stopped down to the opening you intend to use when taking the picture. It is a handy aid in checking the effect of depth of field - i.e. what will be in focus.

APERTURE PRIORITY - A function or shooting mode of a semi-automatic camera that permits the photographer to preset the aperture and leaves the camera to automatically determine the correct shutter speed. What does that mean? You select the aperture setting you want and the camera then automatically calculates the appropriate corresponding shutter speed for proper exposure. It's like a fully-automatic camera except you totally control the aperture.

APO - See Apochromatic

APOCHROMATIC - often shortened to APO, means corrected for spherical and chromatic aberration. Lenses that are apochromatic cause all visible light wavelengths to focus on the film plane. Lenses that are not corrected for chromatic aberration tend to focus red, green and blue wavelengths on different planes.

APS - Acronym for "Advanced Photo System".

ARCHIVAL TECHNIQUES - The handling, treating and storage of photographic materials in a manner that lessens their deterioration from aging or from reaction to other materials.

ARTEFACTS - See "Artifacts" below. "Artefacts" is the usual British spelling of "Artifacts."

ARTIFACTS - Sometimes spelled "artefacts" - Picture degradations that occur as a result of image-processing tasks, such as compressing an image which can result in an increase in digital "noise".

ARTIFICIAL LIGHT - Illumination that comes from a man-made source, such as electronic flash.

ASA - The now defunct film speed rating system of the USA Standards Institute, which was formerly called the American Standards Association - hence the acronym “ASA”. The ASA system has been replaced by the more universal ISO system.

ASPECT RATIO - The ratio of a picture's length to its width. For example, 35mm film has an aspect ratio of 3:2. Also applies to computer and television screens, image sensors and photographic prints. Computer monitors typically have an aspect ratio of 4:3, as do most digital cameras.

ASPHERIC (ASPHERICAL) LENS - A lens element that changes shape across its surface as opposed to one having a smooth continuous arc. Generally, an aspherical lens deviates slightly from an exactly spherical shape, and is relatively free from aberrations. Light rays are bent more at the edges of a conventional spherical lens than they are at the center, causing them to come into focus before the film plane. A lens made with aspherical elements focuses all the light rays passing through it on the film plane.

AUTO-BRACKETING - Occurs when your camera is set to automatically bracket exposures for a series of images when you press the shutter release one time.

AUTO EXPOSURE or AUTOEXPOSURE - Shutter speed and aperture are set automatically by the camera based on its interpretation of the camera's exposure meter readings. Some high-end cameras employ highly-sophisticated, computerized autoexposure systems that seem to be almost foolproof, whereas most consumer cameras' autoexposure systems work best in average lighting situations.

AUTOFOCUS - Ability of a lens and camera to focus automatically on an object within its focusing sensors.

AUTOMATIC APERTURE - An automatic aperture remains fully open until the shutter is released, at which time it closes down to the pre-set aperture size in order for the picture to be properly-exposed. An automatic lens has an automatic aperture.

AUTOMATIC CAMERA - Camera that adjusts the aperture and shutter speed automatically using its built-in exposure meter.

AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE - Also known as “Autoexposure,” (see above) this is a system in an autoexposure camera that meters the light and automatically adjusts the aperture and shutter speed settings for proper exposure of the film.

AUTOMATIC FLASH - Electronic flash unit that automatically adjusts flash duration and intensity based on flash-to-subject distance, providing correct exposure.

AUTOMATIC LENS - A lens that remains open at its widest aperture until the shutter is released, regardless of the aperture setting. Such a lens facilitates focusing with through-the-lens cameras since the maximum amount of light reaches the viewfinder. When the shutter is released, the aperture automatically stops down to its pre-set opening so that proper exposure is made, then returns to a wide-open position until the next time.

AUTOWINDER - Also known as Automatic Film Winder - A camera mechanism that automatically advances the film to the first frame, then advances to the next frame when the shutter is released to take a picture, and usually also automatically rewinds the film into its cartridge when the last frame has been exposed.

AVAILABLE LIGHT - Existing light surrounding a subject; the light that is illuminating a scene without any additional light supplied by the photographer. “Ambient light” and “existing light” are two other terms that mean the same thing.

More details..


What is Exposure?

At its simplest, exposure occurs when the film or digital camera's sensor is exposed to light. When a photograph is taken, light reflected from the subject and its surroundings is transmitted by the lens through the open shutter to the film or sensor for a set length of time. The film /sensor is then said to have been exposed.

The term "exposure," however, also refers to control by the photographer of the final appearance of his or her pictures when the images are being taken. A photographer who understands and applies the concept of exposure will unquestionably produce far more predictable images than the camera user who simply points and shoots.

When is exposure compensation useful?

  • If at first, you take an image and it looks to be too dark or too light when viewing it in your LCD screen. For example if it is early morning or late evening, you might want the photograph to appear lighter (or darker) than it actually is.
  • If you are taking a photograph of an object that is in actual fact too dark, and you want to lighten it. For example if you were taking an image of the underside of a car near the tyre. Bad example I know :) Or lets say you want to photograph a black bird and need to see the actual eye in your image. In this case you could slightly over expose the image to bring out the patterns and shapes.
  • In contrast, snow images can appear too over exposed. In these situations it's recommended to underexpose the image until you see a nice balance between the sky and the snow.
  • Exposure compensation is also useful for those people that photograph objects in a light tent. A light tent is a square box that has numerous colored backgrounds so photographers can capture products and objects with one background color. For example, if a white background is used and you don't change the exposure compensation, the background may appear off white.
How do I control it?

Typically, a light meter is used to determine the amount of light striking your subject and to provide shutter speed and aperture settings for proper exposure for that amount of light. Setting shutter speed and aperture correctly allows you to take properly exposed photographs. With a manual camera, the photographer adjusts shutter speed and aperture settings until the camera’s meter indicates proper exposure. Automatic-exposure cameras don’t require the photographer to make any adjustments, however there are numerous occasions when the photographer will want to over-ride a camera’s automatic settings to improve a picture.


Let us suppose that you are photographing a parade and your light meter indicates proper exposure using a shutter speed of 1/125 sec and an aperture of ƒ11. But, you want to use a faster shutter speed to freeze the action of those marching past, and decide that 1/250 sec would be more appropriate.

Changing from one shutter speed to another that is twice as fast (for instance from 1/125 sec to 1/250 sec) allows half as much light to strike the film, and therefore your picture will be underexposed. But, if you open up the aperture by one stop (i.e. from ƒ11 to ƒ8), it will allow twice as much light to come in, and you will have proper exposure again. The faster shutter speed reduced the light striking the film by 50%, but changing to a wider aperture compensated for this reduction by doubling the amount of light, thereby preserving proper exposure.

In this example, both 1/125 sec at ƒ11 and 1/250 sec at ƒ8 will give proper exposure, but the exposure with the faster shutter speed has more action-stopping ability.

What if a really-fast shutter speed had been chosen, like 1/500 sec? Well, that is two stops faster than 1/125 sec, and therefore the aperture would need to be opened wider by two stops, from ƒ11 to ƒ5.6. As you can see, there are many combinations that will provide you with proper exposure for the same scene. These are called "equivalent exposures." See our section entitled Shutter speed/aperture combinations for more information on choosing the right exposure settings.

How do I judge if my negatives are properly exposed?

A correctly-exposed negative will have some detail in its shadow areas, and its highlight areas will just permit newsprint to be read through them if the negative is placed on a newspaper in good light. These characteristics will produce an excellent photographic print with the least difficulty in a darkroom.

Want to learn more?

Many of our exposure tips and hints will not be used by some amateurs until they have become sufficiently advanced to put them into practice. So, take just those tips that you need to improve your picture-taking ability, overcoming your most-immediate problems first, then refer back later for more-advanced techniques.

One great site that include more information about exposure, how to control, and how to judge is The range of topics may seem a bit daunting for beginners, but it should not be a concern. Each topic is presented with clarity and in simple terms to ensure it will be understood.

More details..

PowerShot SD300/IXUS 40

Sleek, thin, smooth, and featuring a comparatively large 2-inch LCD monitor and an optical viewfinder, the PowerShot SD300/IXUS 40 offers a slimmer design than most other Digital Elph/Ixus cameras to date.

The SD300, a 4 megapixel model and probably the thinnest digital camera produced by Canon so far, packs a 3X optical zoom and yet has a thickness of 20.7mm (0.82 inch) when the lens is retracted. Completely metal clad, the SD300 is composed of a mix of textures and chrome finishes that gives it a classy appearance.

Canon Powershot SD300 Product Details

35mm Zoom Lens : 35 - 105 mm
Aperture Range : f2.8/f4.9 (w/t)
Battery Life : 140 Images
Battery Type : Proprietary Lithium
Camera Resolution : 4.2 Megapixel
Camera Type : Ultra-Compact
Compression Modes : 200f Fine, SuperFine, Normal
Compression Type : JPEG
Depth : 0.82 in.
Digital Zoom : 3.2x
File Size (High Res.) : 1.96 MB (65 images on 128MB card)
File Size (Low Res.) : 0.08 MB (about 1,600 images on 128MB card)
Flash Functions : Flash Off, Auto Flash, Fill-in Flash, Red-eye Reduction F
Focal Length : 5.8 - 17.4 mm
Focus Range : 11.81 in. to Infinity (w)
Focus Type : Autofocus
Frames Per Second : 2.4 Frames
Height : 2.09 in.
Image Resolutions : 640 x 480, 2272 x 1704, 1600 x 1200, 1024 x 768
Image Sensor Type : CCD
Included Accessories : Software, USB Cable, Video Cable, Hand Strap, 16 MB Memo
Interchangeable Lens : Without Interchangeable Lens
Interface Type : USB
ISO Speeds : Auto, 50, 100, 200, 400
LCD Panel : With LCD Panel
LCD Panel Size : 2 in.
LCD Protected Position : Without LCD Protected Position
LCD Screen Resolution : 118,000 pixels
Macro Focus Range : 1.18 - 19.68 in. (w) / 11.81 - 19.68 in. (t)
Max Movie Length : Without Limit (Depends on the camera free memory size)
Memory Type : SD Card
Operating System : Apple Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows
Optical Zoom : 3x
Resolution : 4.2 Megapixel
Self Timer : 2 Sec., 10 Sec.
Shutter Speed : 15 - 1/1500 sec
Video Format : AVI
Video Resolutions : 640 x 480 (VGA), 320 x 240 (QVGA), 160 x 120
Video Speed : 30 fps
Viewfinder : Optical
Weight : 0.29 lb.
White Balance : Auto, Manual, Daylight / Sunny (Preset), Cloudy (Preset)
Width : 3.39 in.
Main Features-Resolution : 4 megapixels
Main Features-Total Pixels : 4,200,000 pixels
Main Features-Optical Sensor Size : 1/2.5 in
Main Features-Light Sensitivity : ISO 50 , ISO 100 , ISO 200 , ISO 400 , ISO auto
Main Features-Digital Zoom : 3.6 x
Main Features-Shooting Modes : Frame movie mode
Main Features-Shooting Programs : Indoor , Underwater , Kids & pets , Digital macro , Portrait mode , Stitch assist , Night snapshot
Main Features-Special effects : Sepia , Vivid , Neutral , Black & White , Low Sharpening
Main Features-Max Shutter Speed : 1/1500 sec
Main Features-Min Shutter Speed : 15 sec
Main Features-White Balance : Custom , Presets , Automatic
Main Features-White Balance Presets : Cloudy , Daylight , Fluorescent , Tungsten light , Fluorescent light (daylight)
Main Features-Digital video format : AVI
Main Features-Continuous Shooting Speed : 2.4 frames per second
Memory / Storage-Flash Memory : 16 MB Flash - SD Memory Card
Memory / Storage-Image Storage : Super-fine JPEG 2272 x 1704 : 6 - With 16MB card , Fine JPEG 2272 x 1704 : 12 - With 16MB card , Normal JPEG 2272 x 1704 : 24 dBi - With 16MB card , Super-fine JPEG 1600 x 1200 : 13 - With 16MB card , Fine JPEG 1600 x 1200 : 24 dBi - With 16MB card
Lens System-Type : Zoom lens - 5.8 mm - 17.4 mm - F/2.8-4.9
Lens System-Focal Length : 5.8 mm - 17.4 mm
Lens System-Lens Construction : 5 group(s) / 6 element(s)
Additional Features-Self Timer : Yes
Camera Flash-Effective Flash Range : 1.6 ft - 11.5 ft
Camera Flash-Red Eye Reduction Yes
Camera Flash-Features : AF illuminator
Viewfinder-Viewfinder Type : Optical - Real-image zoom
Viewfinder-Color support : Color
Display-Type : LCD display - TFT active matrix - 2 in - Color
Display-Mounting : Built-in
Display-Resolution : 118,000 pixels
Digital Player (Recorder)-Type : None
Microphone-Type: Microphone - Built-in
Microphone-Technology: Electret condenser
Microphone-Mode: Mono
Connections-Connector Type: 1 x USB , 1 x Composite video/audio output
Connections-Expansion Slot(s): 1 x SD Memory Card
Lens Systems-Auto Focus: TTL contrast detection
Lens Systems-Type: Zoom lens
Lens Systems-Focal length: 5.8 mm - 17.4 mm
Lens Systems-Focal Length Equivalent to 35mm Camera: 35 - 105 mm
Lens Systems-Auto Focus Points (Zones): 9
Lens Systems-Min Focus Range: 11.8 in
Lens Systems-Macro Focus Range: 3-50cm
Lens Systems-Lens Aperture: F/2.8-4.9
Lens Systems-Zoom Adjustment: Motorized drive
Lens Systems-Lens construction: 5 : 6
Lens Systems-Features: UA lens
Miscellaneous-Cables Included: 1 , 1 x A/V cable , USB cable
Miscellaneous-Included Accessories: Wrist strap
Miscellaneous-Min Operating Temperature: 32 ?F
Miscellaneous-Max Operating Temperature: 104 ?F
Power-Power Device: Battery charger - External
System Requirements for PC Connection-Operating system: MS Windows ME , MS Windows XP , MS Windows 2000 , MS Windows 98 SE , Apple Mac OS X 10.1.5 - 10.3
System Requirements for PC Connection-Peripherals: USB port , CD-ROM drive
Battery-Supported Battery: 1 x Li-ion rechargeable battery - 760 mAh ( Included )
Battery-Capacity: 760 mAh
Software-Type: Canon PhotoStitch , Canon ImageBrowser , Drivers & Utilities , Canon ZoomBrowser EX , ArcSoft PhotoImpression , ArcSoft VideoImpression

More details..

Thursday, February 19, 2009

11 Surefire Landscape Photography Tips

Great article from Darren Rowse on Digital Photography School. The tips included in the article include;
  1. Maximize your Depth of Field
  2. Use a Tripod
  3. Look for a Focal Point
  4. Think Foregrounds
  5. Consider the Sky
  6. Lines
  7. Capture Movement
  8. Work with the Weather
  9. Work the Golden Hours
  10. Think about Horizons
  11. Change your Point of View
Areas included within the tips are ‘rule of thirds’, related reading, shutter speed and much mor
More details..

Website Profile - PlanetEarthDailyPhoto

One of the great things about running a site like FPR is the websites that you come accross, or in this case recommended (thanks Ron) and the people you meet (virtually)!

One such website is PlanetEarthDailyPhoto and one such person is it’s ‘owner’, Rich. ’PEDP’ features a new and unique photo from around the world every day (as the site name would suggest!) and a short dialogue about where the photo was taken and the story behind it.

It’s a great place for photography inspriration and also has a community all it’s own of the people who send Rich their photos from all corners of the world.

Rich also kindly agreed to answer some questions regarding his website and his inspiration behind it;

Can you please tell me a bit about yourself, your hobbies and interests?

I’m an earthling currently residing in a remarkable city: Oxford, England. There are very few things that do not interest me (boredom is surely an illusion?)- my passions include music, radio, books and photography.

What inspired you to create PlanetEarthDailyPhoto?

A friend of mine, Pete, runs an incredible site - Oxford Daily Photo ( A little while after he showed me his site the idea for A Photo A Day From Planet Earth came, fully formed, into my mind… I think I wanted to launch an experiment in randomness, do something truly global and collaborative, and just see where it went. I have enjoyed watching as the site has grown, in the early days, from something held together with the photos of friends and family (thanks, in particular to Mike!) into what it is today- where I receive submissions everyday from countries such as Kuwait to Virginia, Sweden to Taiwan.

Which is your favourite photo that has been submitted to the site?

Impossible to answer; truly… through running the site I am exposed to global photography magic the likes of which continues to surprise, enchant and excite every day.

Have you ever visited any of the great places that have featured on your site?

I have been fortunate to have spent time in, amongst others, Denmark, France, the Gambia, India, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Morocco, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK and the USA…

Where on Earth would you like to visit that you haven’t already and why?

The whole world facinates me. From Antarctica to Cambodia to Colombia to Gabon; wherever I may find myself in the future will be a blessing and good fortune- I hope to be able to discover something of many more places…

Which other websites do you regularly visit for inspiration?

Other than Oxford Daily Photo (I love the way Pete pictures and writes about life), I always look at the BBC News website (it is my homepage actually-being a bit of a news junkie), the BBC iPlayer for quality radio and TV, visit Flickr all the time- it is a peerless photography resource and tool-pure inspiration, and Twitter, which I have recently started using- I love the possibilities for concise communication and word magic. There are countless more… The web is quite a thing really (possibly an understatement)…

Have you ever received a photo that you could not include on the site and why?

Only if it doesn’t have suitable comments or if it doesn’t indicate where it was taken. It is a shame because I often receive submissions that I cannot use, as all photos published on the site must at the very least say where they were taken, and preferably have comments that can accompany the picture.

How many photo do you receive for the site each day?

It varies- between email and Flickr- the two ways to submit to the site- I would say I receive anything from 5 - 25 photos a day currently, and it is increasing. This humbles me, especially as it has been running for less than twenty months.

Have you any plans to expand/change the site at all?

The whole project has been a day to day, piece by piece construction… And the building continues… The central concept will never change, maybe the look will evolve and there may be other ways to submit in time, but we shall see how things pan out…
More details..


Knowing how your digital camera meters light is critical for achieving consistent and accurate exposures. Metering is the brains behind how your camera determines the shutter speed and aperture, based on lighting conditions and ISO speed. Metering options often include partial, evaluative zone or matrix, center-weighted and spot metering. Each of these have subject lighting conditions for which they excel-- and for which they fail. Understanding these can improve one's photographic intuition for how a camera measures light.

Read the complete tutorial from Cambridge In Colour, this time concentrating on metering and Exposure and how our camera captures this information, very useful!
More details..