Tuesday, December 29, 2009

Mark Oristano is a Photographer.

You are actors, performer, business executives and people who need photos for your facebook or a dating service? There is a good photographer in Dallas. He is Mark Oristano. Yes! Mark Oristano is an actor. Now Mark Oristano not only an actor but he is a Dallas photographer too.

Dallas photography grows faster. There is a lot of Photographer in Dallas. But not all of them give you the great headshot like Mark Oristano. The cost for a professional headshot in-studio, including stylist, shooting and retouching, is extremely reasonable. They have right cost for a good headshot. They also digitalized. You will leave the studio with your photo and photo CD without wasting your time. For only an hour up to ninety minutes you can get your photo and photo CD in hand.

So if you need your photos, don’t wasting your time and go to this great Dallas Photographer and Mark Oristano will gives you the best photo.
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Thursday, November 12, 2009

What is Sepia tone? How to Use Sepia Tones?


Black & White......../.................... Sepia

Sepia Toning, like grayscale, refers to a monochromatic basis of color for a photograph. Rather than being based on a black and white color scale, sepia toning relies on a brown scale.

Although sepia toning was a photographic technique commonly used in the early days of photography, photographers still use it today to lend their picture’s somber, serious and dramatic tone. For this reason, many gothic photographers treat their photos with sepia.


Sepia Tone History

Originally made from the Sepia cuttlefish, sepia pigment was used to treat printed photos to make them more durable. Consequently, many of the old photographs around today, such as portraits from the 1700s, appear in brown scales due to the sepia toning that has preserved them for so long.

Sepia toning preserves pictures because of a chemical process that turns any silver in the developing photograph into a sulfide. This sulfide is more resistant to aging than silver. Of a black and white photo developed at the same time as one treated with sepia toning (stored in identical conditions), the sepia tone photo would last longer than the black and white.

How to Use Sepia Tones

Like black and white film, sepia toning also adds a sense of class and timelessness to photos. In fact, the brown scale allows the picture treated in sepia to adopt the same feel as the original sepia pictures of the 1700s. This bridge of time lends sepia-treated portraits a classic, enduring look. Wedding photographers tend to take advantage of this aspect of sepia tones when taking romantic portraits of newly weds.

Gothic photography also makes use of sepia tones. Like wedding photography, romantic gothic photography uses sepia tones to instill a sense of age and by-gone times in the photo. Photographers of dark gothic landscapes use sepia tones to emphasize a stark loneliness and make the landscape or architecture look bleak and barren.

How to Use Sepia Tone Settings

If you aren’t a professional photographer with your own darkroom, then how do you use sepia tones today? One option is to have your photos professionally treated at a photo-developing store. However, these retailers often charge higher process for sepia tone development than for normal color film development.

A more cost-effective approach lies in a do-it-yourself tip. Most editing software can easily render a color image in the warm browns of sepia toning. Similarly, digital cameras often include a sepia tone setting. To use sepia tones with a digital camera, just set the camera to “sepia” and start taking pictures. However, because the quality of a digital camera’s sepia setting varies, it may not necessarily produce pictures equal in quality to the original sepia tone process.

If you find this to be the case, then use your digital camera to take color pictures. The color pictures can later be transformed into sepia with imaging software. By using graphics software to instill sepia, you can adjust the brightness and contrast of the resulting image. Often, even the most basic photo editing programs include a sepia tone option.

How to Frame Sepia Tone Photos

Sepia tones have an advantage over color or black and white photography when it comes to framing. While a black and white picture looks out of place in a wood frame, the brown scale that characterizes sepia tone matches many different shades of wood.

Similarly, the nostalgic feel of sepia toning allows pictures to be framed in ornate, old-fashioned frames that would look mismatched with color photos. When framing sepia pictures, keep in mind the subject of the shot. While wedding pictures taken in sepia work well with wooden albums, gothic photography developed with sepia tone shines in ornately carved frames.
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Sunday, November 1, 2009

11 Surefire Landscape Photography Tips

Several days ago I’ve found Great article from Darren Rowse on Digital Photography School. There are shared about landscape photography tips. There are 11 tips for surefire landscape. I’m so interested to this article. This article was helped me in learning about photography. Here I shared to all of you the article. There are in the article including;


  1. Maximize your Depth of Field
  2. Use a Tripod
  3. Look for a Focal Point
  4. Think Foregrounds
  5. Consider the Sky
  6. Lines
  7. Capture Movement
  8. Work with the Weather
  9. Work the Golden Hours
  10. Think about Horizons
  11. Change your Point of View
Areas included within the tips are ‘rule of thirds’, related reading, shutter speed and much more. So, don’t wasting your time to go there and read the complete article.

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Sunday, October 11, 2009

How to Set Exposure Settings in Photography ?

Many beginners often find their photographs are either underexposed (too dark) or overexposed (too light or white). However, there is a way to manually change the exposure to compensate for them being darker or lighter. Getting the correct exposure balance isn't as hard as it first seems, once you learn a few simple skills from the tips listed below.

Where is the exposure compensation button?

On both Nikon and Canon digital SLR camera's, the exposure compensation button looks like a plus and minus sign (+/-). On a Nikon D40, this is situated near the shutter button. For Canon 400D it is found upper right to the LCD screen on the back of the camera.


How to use the exposure compensation button?
  • The exposure compensation button can be used when your camera is in any non-automatic mode. For example, you can use it while your top dial is on P (for program), S (Nikon shutter priority), TV (Canon shutter priority), A or AV (aperture priority) and M (fully manual) modes.
  • For this exercise, put your camera on the P mode and take one photograph. Now take a second photograph, this time firstly pressing the shutter button half way down to focus (lift up again), then hold down the +/- compensation button, while turning the main dial to the right 4 stops and shoot. Now look at both images one after another in the LCD screen and you should notice a difference in the lighting. Shown below is an example of what the main dial looks like:
Now repeat this exercise, this time when taking the 2nd photograph, hold down the compensation button down and turn the main dial 4 stops to the left. Note: it won't need to always be 4 stops, this is an example to show extremes only.
What you should be seeing is a series of photographs, one too dark, one just right and one too light, like the example below:
  • If you own a Nikon SLR camera, turning the main dial to the left (while holding down the exposure compensation button) will lighten the image. Whereas turning it to the right will darken the image for the next shot taken. You need to readjust it for each photograph.
  • If you own a Canon SLR camera, it is the opposite to the Nikon. Turning your main dial to the left (while holding down the exposure compensation button) will darken the image and turning it to the right will lighten the image.
When is exposure compensation useful?
  • If at first, you take an image and it looks to be too dark or too light when viewing it in your LCD screen. For example if it is early morning or late evening, you might want the photograph to appear lighter (or darker) than it actually is.
  • If you are taking a photograph of an object that is in actual fact too dark, and you want to lighten it. For example if you were taking an image of the underside of a car near the tyre. Bad example I know :) Or lets say you want to photograph a black bird and need to see the actual eye in your image. In this case you could slightly over expose the image to bring out the patterns and shapes.
  • In contrast, snow images can appear too over exposed. In these situations it's recommended to underexpose the image until you see a nice balance between the sky and the snow.
  • Exposure compensation is also useful for those people that photograph objects in a light tent. A light tent is a square box that has numerous colored backgrounds so photographers can capture products and objects with one background color. For example, if a white background is used and you don't change the exposure compensation, the background may appear off white.


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Tuesday, September 15, 2009

What is Aperture?

Aperture is a device that controls the quantity of light that passes through the lens. It is an iris type mechanism, which shrinks or grows in order to let in less or more light.



The numbers you usually see on a lens are:

F: 3.5 4.5 5.6 8 11 16 22 32


Each number lets in two times less light than the previous one.

Small numbers represent a large aperture, big numbers - small aperture. Most digital cameras do not have this numbers written on their lenses, but they use aperture as part of their construction. It is also the way for you to select aperture priority shooting mode from your camera to control the depth of field.

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Saturday, September 5, 2009

The Fujifilm FinePix F20


The Fujifilm FinePix F20 is a 6-megapixel camera with 3x optical zoom, 5x digital zoom, ISO sensitivity up to 2000, 5cm macro and a 2.5-inch LCD display. It can capture VGA videos at 30fps, and has 10MB internal memory and supports xD memory cards.

The Fujifilm FinePix F20 is a virtually perfect social snapshot camera. It has crisp performance, exceptional low-light capabilities, powerful flash, long-lasting battery and ease of use make it ideal for parties and social occasions, and has excellent image quality.

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Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Seitz 6x17'' digital panoramic camera


Instead of the common digital camera sensor which records the entire scene at once, the Seitz 6x17'' uses a scanner to literally scan the view through the lens. The end result is 160 megapixel images in a panoramic format. It does the job a bit faster than your average flatbed scanner though, recording a full-sized frame (21 250 x 7500 pixels) in two seconds. It's big, it's heavy (5 kilos if you wish to use it outside a studio) and quite silly, but it turns out huge, amazing photos – and it should, costing as it does $42 000.
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Saturday, August 15, 2009

Keserakahan --- The Greed







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Wednesday, August 5, 2009

Five Elements of a Great Photograph

Nearly everyone who picks up a camera wants to take a great photograph that makes people say, “Wow! That’s incredible!” But alas, few people manage to get much more than, “That’s really nice.”

Why? Perhaps it’s because not many people know what makes a photograph incredible.

So let’s take a look at five elements that make a photograph great.



1. Good photographs are well composed.
There have been entire books written about composition, and you should certainly spend some time seeing what they have to offer. In the meantime, though, here are a few simple things to keep in mind:

Move in close to a subject. If a particular rose has caught your eye because of the dew holding on to the petals, move in on that rose. The rest of the rose bush will distract the viewer. On the other hand, if you’re photographing the joy on your child’s face after his or her team won a big game, show a bit of the baseball field behind your child so the viewer sees the full picture. Your picture isn’t about a happy child, it’s about a child who is happy about winning a game. Let the viewer see that.

Frame your subject. If you are shooting a landscape, try using the branches of a nearby tree in the foreground. The “frame” doesn’t have to be perfectly focused. You can also use frames effectively when photographing people. Perhaps you can frame a group of children playing in a park by using a tire swing in the foreground. Be creative.

Use the rule of thirds. This is much more simple than it sounds. Draw three imaginary lines horizontally across your photograph. Draw three imaginary lines vertically across the same picture. Where those lines intersect is where the most important part of your subject should be places. Try taking a photograph using this principle. Try it by centering the subject. You’ll see how much more drama the photograph that adheres to the “rule of thirds” holds.

If you’re shooting a landscape, try to find an “s” curve to incorporate into your image. Streams and rivers meander. Rather than situate yourself in front of a “straight” section of the stream, move around until you capture the gentle curves the stream takes. Same with a garden; find the winding paths and use them to add movement and interest to your photograph.

Use diagonals. A strong photograph often composes the subject in a diagonal line. Look at classic paintings of still lifes to see this used well.

2. Good photographs are well exposed.
A poorly exposed photograph will never make a great photograph. Even enhancing your photograph with software won’t give you an image that is as good as one that was correctly exposed to begin with. Take the time to learn how to use your camera’s meter. It will be well worth your effort.

3. Good photographs evoke feelings.
A good photograph stirs up emotions. From a good laugh at a silly kitten tangled in thread to a feeling of horror over an image of war, photographs should make the viewer feel something strongly. So before you release your shutter, ask yourself what emotion you want your image to evoke. Awe at the beauty before you? Hope when your viewer sees someone helping a homeless person? Identify the feeling before you shoot, and your photographs will likely improve.

4. Good photographs tell stories.
This might be a little hard to believe at first, but a good photograph always tells a story. If it’s a photograph of a person, a good photograph is about “who” the person is. School photographs record how a student “looks,” but seldom say who your child is. A landscape tells a story about the land; it shows the viewer whether the land is tranquil or in upheaval, whether it is resting quietly in winter or bursting with activity in spring, whether it is pristine or spoiled by man’s intrusion. Just like you should know the feeling you want to evoke, know the story you want to tell.

5. Good photographs say something about life.
Memorable photographs tell the viewer something more than just how something looks. They show more than the subject you are photographing. A truly good photograph says something about life itself. It makes the viewer stop and think. We’ve all seen those cute animal pictures that make the rounds through email. These have enormous appeal because they tell us that life can be playful, that it is still full of fun and innocence. Photographs of the Grand Canyon are no more than pretty pictures unless the viewer can also see more than the rocks themselves. A cliff says that life can be dangerous. Rocks caught in early morning light show that even something as solid as a rock also has a gentle quality. Use your photographs to communicate things you know about life to be true.

Any one of the five elements above will move your photographs a step away from “That’s nice.” The more of the elements you use in one image, the closer you are to getting a “Wow! That’s beautiful!” Use all five and you will be able to create a masterpiece.

(Nancy Hill @ www.photography.com)
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Saturday, July 25, 2009

Loneliness -- Kesendirian




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Thursday, July 16, 2009

Rumahku oh rumahku --- Oh my home!!!







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Sunday, July 5, 2009

Sunset at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah







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Wednesday, July 1, 2009

8 Tips for Selecting a Digital Camera

There are some tips for selecting a digital camera. Maybe this tips can help you to choose a digital camera which you want.



1• What kind of pictures do you like to take?
  • Snapshots of family and friends
  • Scenery pictures to print out and frame
  • High quality photo art with nice detail and tonal gradations.
  • Telescopic or microscopic photos

2• What size of a camera do you want?
  • Pocket size, easy to have along
  • Handful, but with lots of features
  • Big handful, with a bigger lens and more adjustments
  • Hefty, with interchangeable lenses and other attachments
  • Really heavy, but capable of wonderful quality

3• Lens
  • Fixed focal length or zoom?
  • If a zoom, what range of focal lengths?
  • How large should the maximum aperture be? Bigger apertures (smaller F number) means faster shutter speeds in low light situations.
  • Can you increase the range of focal lengths?
  • Are lenses interchangeable?

4• Viewfinder and LCD monitor
  • Does the camera have an optical viewfinder? Does it work when you use attachments?
  • Does the camera have a LCD monitor?
  • How fast is the LCD monitor?
  • Can the LCD monitor be rotated independent of the camera orientation? Useful for taking pictures from unusual angles.
  • How clear and high resolution is the CLD monitor. Is it clear enough to reliably judge the quality of the picture?

5• Built-in flash
  • How powerful? What is the range of distances over which the flash works?
  • Can the flash be used with other attachments, or do they get in the way?
  • Can you use an external flash?

6• Storage media
  • Which type: Compactflash, MemoryStick, SmartMedia
  • How much storage space on the media that comes with the camera, how expensive is it to get more media?
  • How easy is it to handle the media? Is it so small you are afraid you will lose it or break it? Is it bigger than you want to make space for in your camera bag?
  • What accessories will you need to download the images from the media? Digital film reader? USB cable? Etc.

7• Exposure value choices. Most cameras have a range of sensitivity settings, usually expressed in ASA numbers (i.e., 100, 200, 400). The higher the number, the greater the sensitivity. The lower the number, the better the image quality.
  • What is the range of available settings?
  • How good is the image quality at each setting. The Highest sensitivity settings have a tendency to be "grainier". Take a look a sample original photos in Photoshop.

8• Power
  • How long will a battery charge last?
  • Are the batteries a common type, or are they only only available from one source, and probably more expensive?
  • Does the camera accept standard non-rechargable batteries, in case your charger dies while you are on vacation?
  • Can the camera operate on a plug-in power cord?


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Sunday, May 10, 2009

Quay of Pramuka Island




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Tuesday, May 5, 2009

Types of Photography

Photography is an expansive art form that includes more than just portraiture, landscape or glamour photography. Both professional and amateur photographers may favor specific types of photography over others. While a professional photographer may work in photojournalism, an amateur may be particularly interested in macrophotography. Read on to learn more about the various types of photography.



Photojournalism

Although amateurs may break into this field without formal training, photojournalism is often limited to professionals. One reason photojournalism is generally practiced by professionals is that serious photojournalists must be sure that their shots maintain the integrity of the original scene.
Photojournalism requires the photographer to shoot only the facts: no alteration or embellishment of the photo is permitted. Photojournalism pictures are often powerful images that engage the viewer with the news story. Knowing how to take such shots to capture the original emotion is often learned only through years of practice and experience.

Documentary Photography

Documentary photographs tell stories with images. The main difference between photojournalism and documentary photography is that documentary photography is meant to serve as a historical document of a political or social era while photojournalism documents a particular scene or instance.
A documentary photographer may shoot a series of images of the inner city homeless or chronicle the events of international combat. Any topic may be the subject of documentary photography. As with photojournalism, documentary photography seeks to show the truth without manipulating the image.

Action Photography

While professionals who take action shots may specialize in a variety of different subjects, sports photography is one of the fastest and most exciting types of photography. As with any action shot, a good sports photographer has to know his or her subject well enough to anticipate when to take pictures. The same rule goes for photographers taking action shots of animals in nature or of a plane taking off.

Macrophotography

Macrophotography describes the field of photography in which pictures are taken at close range. Once restricted to photographers with advanced and expensive equipment, macrophotography is now easier for amateurs to practice with digital cameras with macro settings. Macrophotography subjects may include insects, flowers, the texture of a woven sweater or any object where close-up photography reveals interesting details.

Microphotography

Microphotography uses specialized cameras and microscopes to capture images of extremely small subjects. Most applications of microphotography are best suited for the scientific world. For example, microphotography is used in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, biology and medicine.

Glamour Photography

Glamour photography, sometimes confused with pornography, may be sexy and erotic but it is not pornographic. Instead of focusing on nudity or lurid poses, glamour photography seeks to capture its subject in suggestive poses that emphasize curves and shadows. As the name implies, the goal of glamour photography is to depict the model in a glamorous light. Consequently, many glamour shots carry flirtatious, mysterious and playful tones.

Aerial Photography

An aerial photographer specializes in taking photos from the air. Photos may be used for surveying or construction, to capture birds or weather on film or for military purposes. Aerial photographers have used planes, ultralights, parachutes, balloons and remote controlled aircraft to take pictures from the air.

Underwater Photography

Underwater photography is usually employed by scuba divers or snorkelers. However, the cost of scuba diving, coupled with often expensive and unwieldy underwater photography equipment, makes this one of the less common types of photography. Similarly, if an amateur has the equipment and the scuba know-how, taking shots underwater can be complicated, as scuba goggles are magnified and distort the photographer’s vision.

Art Photography

Artistic photography can embrace a wide variety of subjects. While a nature photographer may use underwater photography to create an art show based on sea life, a portrait photographer’s show may feature black and white artistic portraitures. In all cases, the photographs must have aesthetic value to be considered art.

Portraiture

Portraiture is one of the oldest types of photography. Whether the subject is your family or your pet, the goal of portraiture is to capture the personality of the subject or group of subjects on film.

Wedding Photography

Wedding photography is a blend of different types of photography. Although the wedding album is a documentary of the wedding day, wedding photos can be retouched and edited to produce a variety of effects. For example, a photographer may treat some of the pictures with sepia toning to give them a more classic, timeless look.
In addition, a wedding photographer must have portrait photography skills. He may also have to employ glamour photography techniques to capture the bride and groom at their best.

Advertising Photography

Because photography plays a vital role in advertising, many professional photographers devote their careers to advertising photography. The need for unique and eye-catching advertising copy means the photographer may work with multiple types of photography, including macrophotography and glamour photography.

Travel Photography

Travel photography may span several categories of photography, including advertising, documentary or vernacular photography that depicts a particularly local or historical flavor. A travel photographer can capture the feel of a location with both landscapes and portraiture.

source : www.photography.com

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Saturday, May 2, 2009

Menara Kubah Emas | Masjid Dian Al Mahri | Limo | Sawangan | Depok




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Saturday, April 25, 2009

How to take beautiful landscape pictures?

Fill the frame for dramatic effect

Look carefully at the picture you’re framing before you click the button. Experiment by moving the camera up and down, side to side. Tilt the camera to various angles and see what it shows you. Fill the frame with the object that interests you most. If your digital camera has an LCD screen, you can use it to improve your sensitivity to the entire scene.

Change your perspective

There’s no need to shoot everything from a standing position. Sometimes sitting, crouching or getting higher can produce a more interesting shot.

Color

The presence of colors is probably the best hint of a great photography potential. Red is the most pleasant color for the eye. If you manage to find this color or a hue in nature, even in small spots, set up your tripod and prepare your camera. If you also pay attention to the position of these colored spots in the image, it is very possible that you obtain a good picture.

For increased drama, you can easily convert color photos to black and white by using your favorite image-editing program. With some camera models you can even do this in the camera before downloading the image to your computer. Once the image is on your computer, you can use your image-editing program to adjust contrast and brightness. Silhouettes look terrific in black and white, as do old buildings. The effect adds drama.

Clouds

The most beautiful ones are the clouds above the horizon, close to the landscape area that you have in view. At twilight or crack of dawn these clouds may have astonishing colors. They may create a dynamic and complementary center of interest that may give intensity to the center of interest in the picture.

Calmness

A calm, windless atmosphere may sometimes be very useful for the landscape photographer. The wind alters flowers, leaves, trees, grass, lakes and water basins. Do you take pictures of the landscape you will probably not see very soon holding the camera in your hand? It would probably be more cautious to use a tripod, preferably a good one.

Weather

Bad weather may be very good for taking pictures. Fog, mist, snow or rain may give fantastic power and impact to some every day landscapes.

Geographical position

Whenever possible, try to place yourself at north or (especially) south from the landscape you want to take pictures of, because you will thus benefit from lateral light. This sort of light emphasizes the relief and textures, the shapes and shadows.

Close-up

The best landscapes are usually those containing a powerful close-up. Trees, bushes, rocks, bunches of grass or moss, dunes of sand, flowers, almost every subject may be used to create a particular depth in the image. Such a detail may give a three-dimensional illusion, which is very important for the impact of the image.

Reflections

Peaceful waters offer perfect occasions for taking mirror images. This effect may be used in order to double the beauty of a landscape.

source : www.digital-cameras-help.com
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Wednesday, April 15, 2009

DIGITAL CAMERA SENSORS

A digital camera uses a sensor array of millions of tiny pixels in order to produce the final image. When you press your camera's shutter button and the exposure begins, each of these pixels has a "photosite" which is uncovered to collect and store photons in a cavity. Once the exposure finishes, the camera closes each of these photosites, and then tries to assess how many photons fell into each. The relative quantity of photons in each cavity are then sorted into various intensity levels, whose precision is determined by bit depth (0 - 255 for an 8-bit image).

Each cavity is unable to distinguish how much of each color has fallen in, so the above illustration would only be able to create grayscale images. To capture color images, each cavity has to have a filter placed over it which only allows penetration of a particular color of light. Virtually all current digital cameras can only capture one of the three primary colors in each cavity, and so they discard roughly 2/3 of the incoming light. As a result, the camera has to approximate the other two primary colors in order to have information about all three colors at every pixel. The most common type of color filter array is called a "Bayer array," shown below.




A Bayer array consists of alternating rows of red-green and green-blue filters. Notice how the Bayer array contains twice as many green as red or blue sensors. Each primary color does not receive an equal fraction of the total area because the human eye is more sensitive to green light than both red and blue light. Redundancy with green pixels produces an image which appears less noisy and has finer detail than could be accomplished if each color were treated equally. This also explains why noise in the green channel is much less than for the other two primary colors (see "Understanding Image Noise" for an example).

Note: Not all digital cameras use a Bayer array, however this is by far the most common setup. The Foveon sensor used in Sigma's SD9 and SD10 captures all three colors at each pixel location. Sony cameras capture four colors in a similar array: red, green, blue and emerald green.
BAYER DEMOSAICING

Bayer "demosaicing" is the process of translating this Bayer array of primary colors into a final image which contains full color information at each pixel. How is this possible if the camera is unable to directly measure full color? One way of understanding this is to instead think of each 2x2 array of red, green and blue as a single full color cavity.

This would work fine, however most cameras take additional steps to extract even more image information from this color array. If the camera treated all of the colors in each 2x2 array as having landed in the same place, then it would only be able achieve half the resolution in both the horizontal and vertical directions. On the other hand, if a camera computed the color using several overlapping 2x2 arrays, then it could achieve a higher resolution than would be possible with a single set of 2x2 arrays. The following combination of overlapping 2x2 arrays could be used to extract more image information.

Note how we did not calculate image information at the very edges of the array, since we assumed the image continued on in each direction. If these were actually the edges of the cavity array, then calculations here would be less accurate, since there are no longer pixels on all sides. This is no problem, since information at the very edges of an image can easily be cropped out for cameras with millions of pixels.

Other demosaicing algorithms exist which can extract slightly more resolution, produce images which are less noisy, or adapt to best approximate the image at each location.
DEMOSAICING ARTIFACTS

Images with small-scale detail near the resolution limit of the digital sensor can sometimes trick the demosaicing algorithm—producing an unrealistic looking result. The most common artifact is moiré (pronounced "more-ay"), which may appear as repeating patterns, color artifacts or pixels arranges in an unrealistic maze-like pattern:

Two separate photos are shown above—each at a different magnification. Note the appearance of moiré in all four bottom squares, in addition to the third square of the first photo (subtle). Both maze-like and color artifacts can be seen in the third square of the downsized version. These artifacts depend on both the type of texture and software used to develop the digital camera's RAW file.

MICROLENS ARRAYS

You might wonder why the first diagram in this tutorial did not place each cavity directly next to each other. Real-world camera sensors do not actually have photosites which cover the entire surface of the sensor. In fact, they often cover just half the total area in order to accommodate other electronics. Each cavity is shown with little peaks between them to direct the photons to one cavity or the other. Digital cameras contain "microlenses" above each photosite to enhance their light-gathering ability. These lenses are analogous to funnels which direct photons into the photosite where the photons would have otherwise been unused.

Well-designed microlenses can improve the photon signal at each photosite, and subsequently create images which have less noise for the same exposure time. Camera manufacturers have been able to use improvements in microlens design to reduce or maintain noise in the latest high-resolution cameras, despite having smaller photosites due to squeezing more megapixels into the same sensor area.

For further reading on digital camera sensors, please visit:
Digital Camera Sensor Sizes: How Do These Influence Photography?

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Sunday, April 5, 2009

Swimming Child




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Sony Cybershot DSC-H50 Digital Camera

The Sony Cybershot DSC-H50 is a compact, 9.1-megapixel digital camera with an impressive image-stabilized 15x Carl Zeiss f/2.7-4.8 optical zoom lens and a 3-inch tilting LCD monitor. The DSC-H50 features Face Detection, Smile Shutter and Intelligent Scene Recognition technologies, as well as video recording, HDTV compatibility and a remote control.

Sony Cybershot DSC-H50 Pros
  • 15x zoom lens with Super SteadyShot optical image stabilization (31-465 mm equivalent).
  • Very good image quality.
  • Exposure settings ranging from Easy Mode to full manual control.
  • Compact size and light weight.
  • Large, tilting LCD monitor.
  • MPEG video recording with zoom functionality.
  • Easily accessible continuous shooting/bracket button.
  • Remote control - great for group and self-portraits.
  • In-camera editing and slideshow functions.
Sony Cybershot DSC-H50 Cons
  • Optical viewfinder is so small it’s almost useless.
  • Somewhat awkward physical design and user interface.
  • Battery for remote control is difficult to access.


Sony Cybershot DSC-H50 Features

The best thing about the DSC-H50, as far as I’m concerned, is its image-stabilized, 15x optical zoom lens. That’s a 35mm equivalent of 31mm to 465mm, a hell of a zoom capacity, especially on a camera this small and light. (However, recent entries in the superzoom market from Kodak, Olympus and Nikon have upped the zoom ante to 24x and 26x. At what cost to image quality remains to be seen.) I loved being able to zoom in on faraway subjects, such as ancestral Pueblo cliff dwellings from distant overlooks. I could see details through the zoom lens that I could not see with my naked eye. Who needs binoculars when you have a 15x zoom lens?Image stabilization is critical a crtitical feature for the H50. Without it, shooting at full zoom length without a tripod would be next to impossible. Sony’s Super SteadyShot optical image stabilization minimizes blur from camera movement with a built-in gyro that senses movement and then compensates for it by moving the lens elements. This also means more sharp photos when you’re shooting in low light.

The 3-inch, tilting LCD monitor is big, vivid and very useful for shooting from high or low vantage points where you otherwise might not be able to see the display. It’s the first time I’ve used a camera with a tilting LCD and I liked it a lot. However, I did wonder why Sony didn’t go one step further and make it a swivel LCD so it could be viewed from various additional angles. I’ve seen other cameras with LCDs that tilt and swivel and it seems like that would be handy.
The DSC-H50 has a full range of exposure modes, from Easy to full manual, with program auto, shutter priority, aperture priority and several scene modes in between. This makes it an ideal family camera: Set it to Easy mode and hand it to your kid to fool around with; set it to Auto Adjustment or a scene mode like Portrait for your spouse; set it to Manual when you want total creative control.

All Sony Cybershot DSC-H50 Camera Menus

Intelligent Scene Recognition, Face Detection and Smile Shutter are much-touted technological innovations that are great — when they work. In my experience with this camera, Intelligent Scene Recognition worked reasonably well; Face Detection worked so well it even recognized faces in artwork; and Smile Shutter was unreliable at best. Personally, I think Smile Shutter is rather silly, anyway. Is it really so difficult to observe your subject and push the shutter button when they smile? What would be more useful, I think, is if camera makers developed an Eyes Open feature that only takes pictures when all subjects’ eyes are open.

Night Shot is an interesting concept, although I’m not sure I entirely understand it. The manual says: “The Night Shot function lets you shoot subjects in the dark places without using the flash.” Switching Night Shot on reveals a display message that says, “Illuminate subject using infrared light in low light,” and turns on a faint, red light on the front of the camera. Experimenting with Night Shot around my dimly lit house at night, I captured grainy black and white photos with a greenish cast. I prefer the color results I got using Auto Adjustment with the flash turned off. Besides offering a slightly faster shutter speed in very low-light situations, the only real benefit I can see to Night Shot is that its infrared lamp illuminates subjects without the red glow of the focus lamp. This could be useful during theater performances - or perhaps special ops missions in “the dark places” referred to in the manual.

The included remote control is a fantastic accessory - one that quickly convinced me all cameras should come with them. It makes shooting group and self-portraits easy as pie. Just set the camera up on a tripod or other solid surface and set the exposure mode and zoom length, then go pose. When you’re ready, push the shutter button on the remote. Change poses, push the shutter button again. And again. It will keep taking pictures: No self-timer or running back and forth necessary.

Sony Cybershot DSC-H50 Design

According to Sony’s specifications, the DSC-H50 weighs 14.6 ounces (415 g) without the battery and Memory Stick and 1 pound, 3.3 ounces (547 g), with them. It measures 4 9/16 x 3 3/16 x 3 3/8 inches (116.1mm x 81.4mm x 86.0mm). In real-life terms, this translates to a camera that will fit in a medium- to large-sized purse or pack or that can be worn on a neck strap with little weight penalty. It will not fit in a pocket, unless you have especially roomy jacket pockets. Compared to an average DSLR camera body with a kit zoom lens of 200mm or so, the DSC-H50 is a real space-saver. And a somewhat comparable DSLR zoom lens like the Nikon 80-400mm AF-S VR zoom would weigh three pounds - camera not included.

It’s hard to pinpoint why, but this camera does not feel particularly comfortable in my (large-ish female) hands. It’s very difficult to hold or even pick up left-handed, and although I am right-handed, there is really only one way to hold it that feels secure, which is with the right-handed grip. And even that isn’t really comfortable. This lack of ergonomic ease is only a minor impediment, but it does contribute to my sense that this camera is not the best fit for me. I’ve used other compact digital cameras that felt much more comfortable in my hands.

The mode dial on top of the camera accesses exposure and scene modes. The control button’s four-way navigator allows you to quickly select settings for focal length, self-timer, flash and how much information is displayed on the LCD. The wheel dial around the control button lets you adjust ISO, shutter, aperture and other manual options.

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Wednesday, March 25, 2009

Tamron 28-75mm F/2.8 review


f/Stop Range : 2.8-32
Minimum Focus Distance : 13″ (33 cm), over entire zoom range
Magnification : 1:3.9
Zoom/Focus Control : Two-touch
Angle of View : 75 to 32 Degrees
Groups/Elements : 14/16
Length : 3.6″ (92mm)
Maximum Diameter : 2.9″ (73mm)
Filter Size : 67mm
Weight : 1.50 lb (510 g)

With an equivalent zoom range (on my Canon 40D) of 44.8mm to 120mm and constant aperture at F/2.8, the lens serves a dual purpose as a portrait and walk-around lens.

It is light weight compared to the Canon L 24-70, very sharp, has good contrast and on my camera the focus is fast and accurate. As far as focus is concerned, do not use “AI Servo” unless you are shooting subjects moving at high speed (the lens will “hunt” for focus, even if it is not necessary). On “One shot AF” and “AI Focus AF” the lens is very accurate.

As far as distortions, vignetting and chromatic aberrations, I didn’t have any problems using this lens in real life situations. The lens is also well build, with a metal mount and a “lock” button to prevent “zoom creep”.

One common problem that I’ve heard about the Tamron 28-75mm is the front / back focus. I’ve tested my lens and I’ve found out that front focus (just slightly) only occurs at 28mm, but I’m very happy with the situation. I can get a better bokeh behind the subject when using it for portraits. In a very strange way, I’ve turned the lens “problem” into a photographic advantage. Basically, I know what the strong and weak points of my lens are and use it accordingly.

Here are the test images:

How I’ve tested the lens: test chart on the table (not a very flat surface, but it worked), 1 off camera flash (430 EX + off-camera Shoe Cord) and camera on a tripod, pointed down at 45 degrees. More info and the test chart can be found at this location: http://www.focustestchart.com/chart.html

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Tuesday, March 24, 2009

Dermaga Pulau Pramuka




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Friday, March 20, 2009

Taking Panoramic Landscapes

I love panoramas. There's something very appealing about their shape. It's probably because we see the world more in these dimensions than the near square format of standard film/sensor frames. It might also explain the upsurge in the popularity of widescreen TVs!

Panoramas have a reputation of being hard to take. There are dedicated panorama cameras available but unless you've got at least a thousand dollars to spare, you probably can't afford one! But you can take panoramas with any kind of camera.

All a panorama is, is a sequence of images where you turn slightly for each different frame. In the old days, before PCs and the likes of Photoshop were around, you'd take your prints (there wasn't much point in shooting panoramas on slide film, for obvious reasons), lay them out on a table and position them over each other where they overlapped. A bit of sticky tape held them together. [As a side note, this technique was used by NASA to build up mosaic pictures of the planets and satellites their spaceprobes visited, up till the late '70s/early 80s when computers were introduced to make the process less laborious].

Now that PCs and image manipulation packages are easy to come by, high-quality panoramas can now be created by anyone. If you're shooting slide or negative film, you will need to have your images scanned before you do anything else.

DIY Panoramas

The idea behind taking panoramas with SLR cameras is that the camera is rotated around its nodal point during each successive exposure. What's the Nodal Point? It's the point inside your camera where the light rays converge and flip over. It's different for different focal lengths (on zoom lenses) and for different prime lenses (fixed focal length lenses like a standard 50mm lens). It's important to rotate about this point to eliminate image mismatches due to changes in parallax. Parallax is the apparent shift of an object against a background due to a change in observer position.

Just to be clear, the Nodal Point is not the same as the film/sensor plane. Generally, for most SLR cameras and lenses, the Nodal Point is located somewhere towards the center of the lens barrel and lies in front of the image/sensor plane.

The Problem With Parallax

Parallax is easily demonstrated by a simple experiment. Hold up your finger about 1 foot in front of your face and alternately open and close your left and right eyes. You'll notice that your finger shifts left and right with respect to the background depending on which eye is open. Try another experiment: With your finger still raised, close one eye and turn your head from side to side. Notice how your finger moves with respect to the background. This relative movement is due to the fact that you're not rotating your head around your eye's nodal point, which is somewhere in the center of your eyeball. Instead, you're rotating about your spine which is several inches to the rear and off to one side. It is this relative side-to-side motion that we try to eliminate when setting up a camera for panoramas.

Now, if you consider a camera held up to your face - it will suffer even greater parallax errors as it's farther from your spine (the point of rotation of your head) than your eye. It's surprisingly common for people to take panoramas in this fashion and then find the individual pictures don't match up.

So use a tripod and rotate the camera on the tripod. The parallax errors will be significantly smaller but there will still be some error involved. However, the images will match up better than with the head rotation method.

Mechanical Contraptions

What perfectionists strive for is to have the camera rotate about the nodal point. There are brackets and contraptions available that will let you offset your camera from the tripod's axis of rotation and with a little experimentation and trial and error, you can position your camera so that its nodal point is directly over the axis of rotation of the bracket. Getting this spot-on means your images should line up perfectly.

A few months ago I bought such a bracket - the Kaidan Kiwi. This comes in two halves which produce an L-shaped bracket. Its instruction manual explains how to set it up and find the nodal point for your camera and lens. However, you have to get your tripod perfectly level before using it, otherwise you end up with a curved panorama rather than a straight one.
I've had good success using this bracket, but it is large and heavy and certainly a bit too cumbersome to be carrying on long walks or while away on vacation.

AutoStitch To The Rescue
Then I recently came across a free bit of software called AutoStitch. Written by a couple of students at the University of Columbia, this takes all of the heartache out of creating panoramas. All you do is select the size of the final image and tell it what images you want it to stitch. It then goes off and produces your panorama.

It really is that simple. Unless successive images are radically different in exposure (i.e. one image to too light or dark compared to another), it seamlessly blends them. It performs all the warping of the images necessary to get them to align (other software I've used can cause ghosting in the overlap areas where it hasn't quite aligned the images). It also aligns multiple rows of images rather than just a single strip.

Even better, it doesn't require you to set up your camera to rotate about its nodal point. When I was in Crete last year, I tried shooting a few panoramas with my Canon EOS 300D held up to my eye (I didn't have a tripod with me). When I got home, I tried stitching the pictures together using various bits of software (including software dedicated to stitching images together) and didn't get satisfactory results. I knew, though, that it was because I'd swivelled the camera about my spine. But I tried these images with AutoStitch and they came out perfectly.

I went walking up the Wicklow mountains in Ireland no too long ago and up to a high point called Djouce which offers a view over the rolling hills south of Dublin. As an experiment, I shot 8 frames while rotating my head about the scene (camera to eye as per normal). I wanted to see if the Crete photos were a fluke as the panoramas from there were composed of, at most, 3 frames each (sometimes 2).

Conclusion

What can I say? I plugged 8 frames into AutoStitch and after a bit of time processing the images, it produced a perfect panorama with no ghosting I could see in the overlap reasons. I like software like that. It may only do one thing but it does that one thing very well.
Give AutoStitch a try. It's free and, so far, it produces the best panoramic results of all the panorama/stitching software I've tried.

One thing to remember when taking panoramas is that the exposures of each frame should be the same. So if you make your first exposure at f/8 and 1/125 of a second, take them all using those settings. Yes, you will have to put your camera into manual mode. Otherwise, you run the risk of having radically different exposures for your images. For example, if you're panning over a landscape that contains water, like a lake, any sunlight reflected off the water may make your camera take a shorter exposure than for the other frames in your sequence. Setting your camera to manual mode will prevent that.

About the Author
Gary Nugent is a software engineer by profession and has been in the business for over 20 years. Photography has been a hobby for an even longer period of time and he's now even more passionate about it since making the switch to using a digital SLR camera. You'll find more tips and techniques at Great Landscape Photography: http://www.great-landscape-photography.com


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Tuesday, March 17, 2009

Macro Photography

The photos that can be included in this category are those that depict reality at a 1:1 scale. So, if you take the picture of a butterfly and it has a wing span of 3 cm, the printed image must have a butterfly with a wing span of at least 3 cm.

For DSLR cameras, there are specialized very expensive macro lenses, witch provide extreme magnification and image detail. However, most digital cameras have a zoom lens, with built in macro capabilities.

What you must understand about macro photography is the fact it can be very satisfying. The amount of detail that can be captured with even a modest, low cost digital camera is breathtaking. In dealing with macro photography, you need patience and luck.

First, you need patience in setting the camera; because you have a very shallow depth of field, the camera must be very still, or the image will be out of focus. Luck is required when dealing with subjects like insects. They tend to move...

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Thursday, March 12, 2009

Canon 450D EOS Digital Rebel XSi Specifications

The Canon EOS 450D / Digital Rebel XSi has been announced at January 2008.The info provided here has become a comparison between what I’ve supposed the specifications will be and the actual product.

Considering the latest product releases from Canon, the Canon PowerShot G9, Canon EOS-1Ds Mark III and Canon EOS 40D it seems that the successor of the 400D Digital Rebel XTi will have a price about 900-1000 USD

Here is the specifications:
  • Max resolution: 4000 x 3000 (4272 x 2848 pixels, 3/2 aspect ratio instead of a 4/3)
  • Effective pixels: 12 megapixels
  • Sensor size: 22.2 x 14.8 mm
  • Sensor type: CMOS
  • ISO rating: 100 - 1600
  • Auto Focus: Yes
  • Manual Focus: Yes
  • Auto focus type: Multi-BASIS TTL, 9 focus points (diamond shape) (9-point CMOS sensor, cross-type F2.8 at center)
  • White balance override: 8 positions & manual preset (7 positions and manual preset)
  • Min shutter: 30 sec + Bulb
  • Max shutter: 1/4000 sec
  • Built-in Flash: Yes
  • External flash: Yes, hot-shoe & sync
  • Flash modes: External
  • Exposure compensation: -2 to +2 EV in 1/3 EV or 1/2 EV steps (-3 to +3 EV in 1/3 EV or 1/2 EV steps)
  • Metering: TTL 35-zone SPC, center weighted, partial, spot
  • Aperture priority: Yes
  • Shutter priority: Yes
  • Focal length multiplier: 1.6
  • Lens thread: Canon EOS EF, EF-S mount
  • Continuous Drive: Yes, 3 fps max 60 JPEG, 17 RAW (3.5 fps up to 53 JPEG / 6 RAW frames)
  • Movie Clips: YES
  • Self-timer: 10 sec or 2sec
  • Storage types: Compact Flash (Type I or II) (SD / SDHC card)
  • Uncompressed format: RAW
  • Compressed format: JPEG (EXIF 2.2)
  • Quality Levels: Fine, Normal
  • Viewfinder: TTL
  • LCD: 3″ with Live View
  • Video out: Yes
  • USB: Yes, 2.0
If you’ll check the whole list of improvements from the 400d to 450d you’ll be really impressed. There are only two things that might cause a problem (from my point of view):

The 450d has almost the same physical dimensions as the 400d, for my hands, it’s too small.

Image quality at 12 megapixels, a cropped sensor and the current lenses. It seems that if somebody would like to get the best out of this camera would be to buy very expensive Canon L series lenses. I really don’t think that the standard kit lens has enough resolution to cover this sensor (remember, the kit lens was first introduced on Canon 300D – only a 6 megapixels sensor)

However, overall, this is a very impressive camera. Considering the 14bit capability and the possible usage of L series lenses, this camera could provide the same image quality as a Canon 5D at only half the price!

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Monday, March 9, 2009

KODAK Z980 Digital Camera


At January 2009 Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE:EK) announced new additions to its digital camera line, led by the high-zoom KODAK Z980 Digital Camera, featuring outstanding control and Kodak’s innovative Smart Capture feature that consistently delivers high quality images.

Featuring a wealth of power and versatility, the KODAK Z980 Digital Camera offers a 26 mm wide angle, professional quality, 24X image stabilized optical zoom lens, a vertical shutter release and a hot shoe, all at an affordable price.

The Z980 enables serious photographers to easily handle both long-distance and wide-angle shots, and boasts Kodak’s innovative Smart Capture feature, which automatically adjusts the camera’s settings to deliver brilliant images automatically.

“The Z980 is an ideal camera for photographers looking to do more and get more from their digital camera,” said John Blake, General Manager Digital Capture and Devices, Vice President, Eastman Kodak Company. “The versatile lens, combined with our exclusive Smart Capture feature, lets consumers shoot great pictures in any setting — from daylight to night or from close-ups to landscapes, the camera makes adjustments automatically.”

The new KODAK Z980 Digital Camera offers:

  • Kodak’s exclusive Smart Capture feature, which analyzes scenes and adjusts camera settings to deliver beautiful pictures more often;
  • 26 mm wide angle/24X SCHNEIDER-KREUZNACH VARIOGON Image Stabilized Optical Zoom Lens;
  • HD picture and video capture;
  • Vertical shutter release and detachable vertical grip, for greater comfort and control when shooting scenes vertically;
  • Hot shoe for the optional KODAK P20 flash;
  • 12 MP for prints up to 30″x40″;
  • Bright and detail-rich 3-inch indoor/outdoor color display;
  • Compatible with new KODAK WI-FI Memory Cards and KODAK SDHC/SD Memory Cards;
  • Available at US$399.95 MSRP from Spring, 2009.
Kodak also introduced new models to its M-Series Digital Camera line, led by the KODAK EASYSHARE M380 Digital Camera. A sleek but powerful digital camera for style-savvy consumers, the M380 delivers an innovative feature package led by Kodak’s Smart Capture feature, and also boasts a 10MP sensor, 5x optical zoom, and 2.7″ LCD. The M380 will be available in black, red and teal, and retail at US$179 MSRP from March, 2009;

Also new to the KODAK M Series Digital Cameras are:
  • KODAK EASYSHARE M340 Digital Camera, offering Smart Capture, 10MP sensor, 3x optical zoom, 2.7″ LCD, in a slim body design; available in blue, blue-green, silver, and red, and retailing at US$149 MSRP from March, 2009;
  • KODAK EASYSHARE M320 Digital Camera, featuring Kodak Perfect Touch technology providing automatic red-eye reduction, shadow lightening and more, 9MP sensor, 3x optical zoom, 2.7″ LCD; available in black, silver, red and blue, and retailing at US$129 MSRP from February, 2009.
Accessories

A range of accessories will be available for the new KODAK Digital Cameras including KODAK Li-Ion Rechargeable Digital Camera Batteries and battery charger kits; KODAK SD and SDHC High Performance Memory Cards; KODAK Camera Bags and much more.

About Kodak

As the world’s foremost imaging innovator, Kodak helps consumers, businesses, and creative professionals unleash the power of pictures and printing to enrich their lives.

To learn more, visit the newly redesigned http://www.kodak.com and follow our blogs and more at http://www.kodak.com/go/followus.

More than 70 million people worldwide manage, share and create photo gifts online at KODAK Gallery –join for free today at www.kodakgallery.com


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Sunday, March 1, 2009

Terms beginning with "B" in Photography

B (Bulb) - A shutter speed dial setting that indicates that the shutter will remain open as long as the release button is depressed - also known as the “B setting ” or "Bulb" setting. The "B" setting is used for time exposures.

B&W - Black and white. Also appears as "B and W" and "B/W."

BACK - The removable part of a medium or large-format camera that holds the film or the digital recording surface. "Backs" are attached to the back of the camera, hence their name. They shield the film from light except when exposed in the camera.

BACKGROUND - The part of a scene that appears to be furthest from the viewer, behind objects in the foreground.

BACK PROJECTION - Projection, usually of a transparency, onto the rear of a translucent screen.

BACKDROP - The background in a studio.

BACKGROUND - The area within the viewfinder that is behind the subject of a photograph.

BACK-LIGHTING - Light directed at the subject from behind the subject.

BACKSCATTER - Suspended particles in water that are illuminated, and therefore captured on film as a cloud or scattering of light dots, when using a flash underwater near the lens.

BACK-UP - A safety measure that is a copy of an image, a file, a folder or an entire computer drive to be restored in the event that the original becomes lost.

BALANCE - Compositional harmony of a scene based on the placement of elements of different sizes, shapes and colors.

BARE BULB - Electronic flash unit used without a reflector or diffuser.

BARN DOORS - These are small “gobos” (light-blocking devices) that fall under the general category of “grip equipment.” They are accessories that attach to studio lights and swivel on hinges (just like the doors on a barn) to allow the photographer to control the light’s direction and the width of the light beam.

BARREL DISTORTION - Image distortion caused by a lens, where the edge bows outwards like a fisheye or wide-angle lens's image.

BATCH NUMBERS - Series of numbers imprinted by the manufacturer on the packaging of film and light-sensitive products to indicate that the materials are all from the same production batch, and therefore share closely-similar qualities, such as film speed and contrast.

BELLOWS - A folding sleeve-like device usually made of fabric that fits between the lens and the camera that allows for extended separation of lens and film plane. A bellows is used in close-up photography, and performs a function similar to that of extension tubes, except that the tubes are fixed and the bellows is minutely adjustable.

BETWEEN-THE-LENS SHUTTER - A shutter situated between two lens elements.

BITMAP - A bitmap is a picture that is an arrangement of tiny squares of different colors, called pixels. For the file extension, ".bmp," see .BMP below.

BLEED - Describes a photographic print that extends to the edges of the paper (beyond the trim marks on a page) and has no visible border or defined margin area.

BLOW-UP - As a noun, blow-up (or blowup) is another term for an enlargement of a photographic print. As a verb, it is the actual enlarging of the image, as in “Please blow up this negative to an 11" X 14" print.”

BLUR - Denotes a photograph in which movement, either camera movement, zoom lens movement or movement within the scene (e.g. a subject in motion), is recorded at a slower shutter speed than is necessary to “freeze” the motion as a sharp image. Blur is often intentionally created by a photographer who wishes to convey a sense of motion.

.BMP - (Bitmap) The extension for an uncompressed image file format created by Microsoft that is mainly used in Windows-based applications.

BOOT TIME - The time it takes for a digital camera to be ready to take pictures after turning it on.

BOUNCE FLASH - Flash illumination of a subject by reflection off a surface (such as a ceiling or wall) as opposed to direct flash, which is flash light aimed straight at the subject. (Sometimes also called "Bounce lighting.")

BOX CAMERA - Simple camera with a fixed, single-element lens and a light-tight box to hold the film. The shutter and aperture are usually pre-determined and unalterable (typically 1/25 sec at ƒ11.) Early consumer cameras developed by George Eastman were box cameras (e.g. the “Brownie” camera) . They could not be focused, per se. The lens was set to a hyperfocal distance that gave acceptably-sharp pictures if the subject was a given distance from the camera and correct exposure depended upon bright sun illuminating the scene.

BRACKET or BRACKETING - Refers to taking a series of pictures, at least three, of the same subject with varying exposures - (1) the main exposure, which is presumed to be correct, but may not be; (2) an overexposure, generally of or 1 stop’s difference from the main exposure, and (3) an underexposure of , 1 or 2 stop’s difference from the main exposure. The theory behind exposure bracketing is that the photographer may not be certain that the main exposure is best for the subject matter, and the subsequent exposures will provide “insurance” that at least one of the images will provide acceptable exposure. Sometimes, though, the photographer may simply want to see the effects of different exposures of a scene. The term “bracket” is analogous with grammatical brackets or parentheses, where they are located on either end of a phrase. “Bracketed” exposures fall on either side of the exposure that is presumed to be correct.

BROAD LIGHTING - Broad lighting occurs when the main light illuminates the side of the subject's face that is turned toward the camera. The BROWNIE is the original consumer camera, developed by George Eastman in 1888.

BROWNIE - Brand name of Kodak’s first consumer box cameras.

B.S. - B.S. refers to the British Standard for film speed measurement. BSI refers to the British Standards Institute which determined the B.S. system. It employed the same film speed numbering system as the American Standards Association- ASA. Both are now defunct, having been replaced by ISO for rating of the sensitivity of film and photographic materials.

BUBBLE JET - Canon's name for its inkjet printing system.

BUILT-IN LIGHT METER - A reflective exposure meter that is a built-in component of a camera.

BULK FILM - Film produced in very long, uncut strips - rolls that are too long to fit into cameras not equipped with a bulk camera back accessory. Many photographers buy their film in bulk, then load the bulk film into a “bulk film loader” which permits them to cut the bulk film into however many frames they wish, and to load the smaller strips into film cartridges that permit film reloading. It is an economical way to purchase film.

BURNING or Burning-in - Also known as "Printing in." In a darkroom, providing extra exposure to an area of the print to make it darker, while blocking light from the rest of the print.

BUTTERFLY LIGHTING - In a studio, the main light is placed fairly high, directly in front of the face - aimed at the center of the nose. It casts a shadow shaped like a butterfly beneath the nose.

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Friday, February 27, 2009

What about my Pattaya Susnset Photo?



Image PROPERTIES :

Width : 2540 pixels
Height : 1905 pixels
Horizontal Res : 72 dpi
Vertical Res : 72 dpi
Equipment : SONY
Camera Model : DSC-H7
Color Representation : sRGB
Focal Length : 16 mm
Exposure time : 1/80 sec
Flash Mode : Unknown
ISO Speed : ISO-80
Exposure PROGRAM : Normal
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Wednesday, February 25, 2009

Terms beginning with "A" in Photography

ABERRATION -
(1) Something that prevents light from being brought into sharp focus, disenabling the formation of a clear image.
(2) Lens flaw - the inability of a lens to reproduce an accurate, focused, sharp image. Aberration in simple lenses is sub-categorized into seven types:
  • Astigmatism - lines in some directions are focused less sharply than lines in other directions,
  • Chromatic aberration or Axial chromatic aberration - different wavelengths of light coming into focus in front of and behind the film plane, resulting in points of light exhibiting a rainbow-like halo and reduction in sharpness,
  • Coma - the image of a point source of light cannot be brought into focus, but has instead a comet shape,
  • Curvilinear distortion - distortion consisting of curved lines,
  • Field curvature - the image is incorrectly curved,
  • Lateral chromatic aberration also known as Transverse chromatic aberration - variation in the magnification at the sides of a lens (this aberration type used to be termed “lateral color”),
  • Spherical aberration : - variation in focal length of a lens from center to edge due to its spherical shape - generally all parts of the image, including its center.
The effects of lens aberration usually increase with increases in aperture or in angle of field.

ABSORPTION - Occurs when light is partially or completely absorbed by a surface, converting its energy to heat.



ABSTRACT - In the photographic sense, an image that is conceived apart from concrete reality, generally emphasizing lines, colors and geometrical forms, and their relationship to one another.

ACCESSORY SHOE - A fitting generally located on top of a camera to which accessories (such as a flash unit) are attached.

ACHROMATIC - Free from chromatic aberration. An achromatic lens is able to transmit light without separating it into colors.

ACUTANCE - A measure of the sharpness with which the film can produce the edge of an object.

ADAPTER RING - Also called a “Stepping ring” - enables a filter of one size to be attached to a lens of another size.

ADDITIVE COLOR - Mixing colored lights to result in another light color.

ADVANCED PHOTO SYSTEM (APS) - A camera system brought forth in 1996 as a new foolproof photography system for weekend snapshooters and people who had not yet ventured into photography. It introduced a new film size (requiring new camera designs to use it) and a new means of photofinishing.

AE LOCK - Auto Exposure Lock or "AE-L" - permits you to take an exposure meter reading from part of a scene and to keep the reading to apply it to the entire composition. The photographer first aims the camera at a specific area, takes a meter reading, locks in that reading using the camera's AE Lock, then recomposes the image and takes the picture.

AERIAL - Above ground; in the air. Also casually refers to a picture taken from the air, as in an “aerial” or an “aerial photograph.”

AERIAL PERSPECTIVE - The perception of depth or distance caused by atmospheric haze and its effect on tonal change in an image.

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY - Photography conducted above ground, commonly understood to be picture-taking from an aircraft.

AF - Abbreviation for “Autofocus”

AF LOCK - Autofocus Lock - Causes the camera to stop automatically focusing. AF lock is typically used when the subject is outside of the viewfinder’s autofocus sensor(s). The photographer first aims the camera so that subject comes automatically into focus, “locks” in that focus setting using AF lock so that autofocus is temporarily disabled, then recomposes the image and takes the picture.

AGITATION - Gentle movement of liquid photo-processing chemicals (developer, stop-bath, fixer) during processing of film or paper in order to achieve uniform results.

AIR - A relatively large area of white space in a layout.

AMBIENT LIGHT - Existing light surrounding a subject; the light that is illuminating a scene without any additional light supplied by the photographer. “Available light” and “existing light” are two other terms that mean the same thing.

ANAMORPHIC LENS - a lens that compresses a wide-angle of view into a standard frame.

ANGLE OF INCIDENCE - Light striking a surface is called “incident light.” It becomes “reflected light” when it reflects from the surface. The “angle of incidence” is the angle at which the incident light strikes the surface, and is measured from a line that is perpendicular to the surface (called the “normal”).

ANGLE OF VIEW - Also known as the “Field of view,” “FOV” and the “Angle of the field of view”, it is the extent of the view taken in by a lens. The focal length of a lens, in conjunction with film size, determines the angle of view. Wide-angle lenses have a wider angle of view than do telephoto lenses. A “standard” lens has an angle of view equal to the diagonal of the film, which is generally around 52 or 53.

ANTI-ALIASING - Smoothing the edges of objects in a digital image to reduce the appearance of "stair steps".

ANTI-SHAKE - Technology that combats a lens's movement caused by camera shake to reduce blur in an image.

APERTURE - A circle-shaped opening in a lens (a hole, really) through which light passes to strike the film. The aperture is usually created by an iris diaphragm that is adjustable, enabling the aperture to be made wider or narrower, thereby letting in more or less light. The size of the aperture is expressed as an f-number, like f/8 or f/11.

APERTURE PREVIEW - Controlled by a button or switch on some cameras, this feature permits you to look at the scene in the viewfinder with the aperture stopped down to the opening you intend to use when taking the picture. It is a handy aid in checking the effect of depth of field - i.e. what will be in focus.

APERTURE PRIORITY - A function or shooting mode of a semi-automatic camera that permits the photographer to preset the aperture and leaves the camera to automatically determine the correct shutter speed. What does that mean? You select the aperture setting you want and the camera then automatically calculates the appropriate corresponding shutter speed for proper exposure. It's like a fully-automatic camera except you totally control the aperture.

APO - See Apochromatic

APOCHROMATIC - often shortened to APO, means corrected for spherical and chromatic aberration. Lenses that are apochromatic cause all visible light wavelengths to focus on the film plane. Lenses that are not corrected for chromatic aberration tend to focus red, green and blue wavelengths on different planes.

APS - Acronym for "Advanced Photo System".

ARCHIVAL TECHNIQUES - The handling, treating and storage of photographic materials in a manner that lessens their deterioration from aging or from reaction to other materials.

ARTEFACTS - See "Artifacts" below. "Artefacts" is the usual British spelling of "Artifacts."

ARTIFACTS - Sometimes spelled "artefacts" - Picture degradations that occur as a result of image-processing tasks, such as compressing an image which can result in an increase in digital "noise".

ARTIFICIAL LIGHT - Illumination that comes from a man-made source, such as electronic flash.

ASA - The now defunct film speed rating system of the USA Standards Institute, which was formerly called the American Standards Association - hence the acronym “ASA”. The ASA system has been replaced by the more universal ISO system.

ASPECT RATIO - The ratio of a picture's length to its width. For example, 35mm film has an aspect ratio of 3:2. Also applies to computer and television screens, image sensors and photographic prints. Computer monitors typically have an aspect ratio of 4:3, as do most digital cameras.

ASPHERIC (ASPHERICAL) LENS - A lens element that changes shape across its surface as opposed to one having a smooth continuous arc. Generally, an aspherical lens deviates slightly from an exactly spherical shape, and is relatively free from aberrations. Light rays are bent more at the edges of a conventional spherical lens than they are at the center, causing them to come into focus before the film plane. A lens made with aspherical elements focuses all the light rays passing through it on the film plane.

AUTO-BRACKETING - Occurs when your camera is set to automatically bracket exposures for a series of images when you press the shutter release one time.

AUTO EXPOSURE or AUTOEXPOSURE - Shutter speed and aperture are set automatically by the camera based on its interpretation of the camera's exposure meter readings. Some high-end cameras employ highly-sophisticated, computerized autoexposure systems that seem to be almost foolproof, whereas most consumer cameras' autoexposure systems work best in average lighting situations.

AUTOFOCUS - Ability of a lens and camera to focus automatically on an object within its focusing sensors.

AUTOMATIC APERTURE - An automatic aperture remains fully open until the shutter is released, at which time it closes down to the pre-set aperture size in order for the picture to be properly-exposed. An automatic lens has an automatic aperture.

AUTOMATIC CAMERA - Camera that adjusts the aperture and shutter speed automatically using its built-in exposure meter.

AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE - Also known as “Autoexposure,” (see above) this is a system in an autoexposure camera that meters the light and automatically adjusts the aperture and shutter speed settings for proper exposure of the film.

AUTOMATIC FLASH - Electronic flash unit that automatically adjusts flash duration and intensity based on flash-to-subject distance, providing correct exposure.

AUTOMATIC LENS - A lens that remains open at its widest aperture until the shutter is released, regardless of the aperture setting. Such a lens facilitates focusing with through-the-lens cameras since the maximum amount of light reaches the viewfinder. When the shutter is released, the aperture automatically stops down to its pre-set opening so that proper exposure is made, then returns to a wide-open position until the next time.

AUTOWINDER - Also known as Automatic Film Winder - A camera mechanism that automatically advances the film to the first frame, then advances to the next frame when the shutter is released to take a picture, and usually also automatically rewinds the film into its cartridge when the last frame has been exposed.

AVAILABLE LIGHT - Existing light surrounding a subject; the light that is illuminating a scene without any additional light supplied by the photographer. “Ambient light” and “existing light” are two other terms that mean the same thing.

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